Glossary

ADR (Adverse Reaction)– A result of drug therapy that is neither intended nor expected in normal therapeutic use and that causes significant, sometimes life-threatening conditions.

AE (Adverse Event)– Unfavorable medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.

Antibiotic resistance– The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive. It is a major concern of overuse of antibiotics.

Arthraligia– Pain in one or more joints

Black box warning– A type of warning that appears on the on the labeling of a prescription drug, or in literature describing it, formatted with a ‘box’ or border around the text. It is the strongest warning that the FDA requires, and signifies that medical studies indicate that the drug carries a significant risk of serious or even life-threatening adverse effects.
DNA Gyrase– Often referred to simply as gyrase, is an enzyme that relieves strain while double-strand DNA is being unwound by helicase. It is also known as DNA topoisomerase II. This causes negative supercoiling of the DNA. Bacterial DNA gyrase is the target of many antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones.

Dysautonomia– Also known as autonomic dysfunction, autonomic neuropathy. A a type of neuropathy affecting the nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the heart, bladder, intestines, sweat glands, pupils, and blood vessels .

ECG (Electrocardiography) – the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on a patient’s body. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle depolarizing during each heartbeat.

EEG (electroencephalogram)– A test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain.

EHR (Electronic Health Record)– An official health record for an individual that is shared among multiple facilities and agencies. An EHR typically includes contact information, medications, insurance information, family history, allergies, hospitalization and physician medical records, information about surgeries, etc.

Event Reporting– The identification and reporting of occurrences that could have led, or did lead, to an undesirable outcome.

FAERS (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System)– A database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. It is designed to support the FDA’s post-marketing safety surveillance program for drug and therapeutic biologic products. Also known as MedWatch. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/medwatch/index.cfm?action=consumer.reporting1

Fibromyalgia– A chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, tenderness, and stiffness of muscles and associated connective tissue structures that is typically accompanied by fatigue, headache, and sleep disturbances

First line of defense medication– The treatment regimen or regimens that are generally accepted by the medical establishment for initial treatment. Fluoroquinolones were never meant to be used as a first line of defense and should only be considered as a viable treatment after safer alternatives are explored and tried, or for life threatening infections.

Fluorine– A nonmetallic halogen element that is isolated as a pale yellowish flammable irritating toxic diatomic gas. The fluorine atom is attached to the active ingredients in fluoroquinolones in order to allow them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain or other organs more readily, so less of the active ingredient is needed, and more money is saved by the pharmaceutical manufacturer.

FQAD (Fluoroquinolone Associated Disability). A term used by the FDA for the Joint Meeting of the Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee on Novemmber 5 to describe the disabilities caused by fluoroquinolones in otherwise healthy patients.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)– Fluoroquinolones are known to inhibit binding of GABA to GABA receptors

Glutathione– A substance produced naturally by the liver and is involved in many processes in the body, including tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and for the immune system. Fluoroquinolones are proven to deplete glutathione in the body.

High Alert Medications– Drugs that bear a heightened risk of causing injury when misused, consequences of errors with these drugs may be more devastating.

Iatrogenic– An adverse effect of medical care, rather than of the underlying disease, equivalent to an adverse event.

Medication Safety– Freedom from accidental injury during the course of medication use; activities to avoid, prevent, or correct adverse drug events which may result from the use of medications.

MedWatch, also known as FAERS (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System)– A database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. It is designed to support the FDA’s post-marketing safety surveillance program for drug and therapeutic biologic products. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/medwatch/index.cfm?action=consumer.reporting1

Mitochondrial Toxicity– A condition in which the mitochondria of a body’s cells become damaged or decline significantly in number; it occurs as a side effect of certain medications such a antiretrovirals and fluoroquinolones. Mitochondrial Toxicity can lead to neurodegenerative disorders.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)– A test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body.

Neurodegenerative– Relating to or marked by degeneration of nervous tissue.

Neurotoxin– A poisonous complex especially of protein that acts on the nervous system.

Orthostatic hypotension– , also known as postural hypotension, orthostasis, and colloquially as head rush or dizzy spell is a form of low blood pressure in which a person’s blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up.

Overuse, Misuse– Activities resulting in quality problems. “Overuse” refers to providing a process of care in circumstances where the potential for harm exceeds the potential for benefit. “Misuse” occurs when an appropriate process of care has been selected but a preventable complication occurs and the patient does not receive the full potential benefit of the service.

Patient Safety– Freedom from accidental or preventable injuries produced by medical care; activities to avoid, prevent or correct adverse outcomes which may result from the delivery of health care.

Peripheral neuroathy– Damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health. It generally involves a stinging or burning sensation or numbness.

PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography)– A type of imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body, and shows how organs and tissues are working.

Pharmacokinetic – The action of drugs in the body over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation and excretion.

POTS (postural tachycardia syndrome)– A condition in which a change from the supine position to an upright position causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate.

Preventable Adverse Drug Event– An adverse drug event caused by an error.

Psychosis– Defective or lost contact with reality especially as evidenced by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and behavior.

Punch biopsy– A biopsy to detect infection caused by bacteria, virus, or parasite by removing a core of tissue with a skin punch.

Retinal detachment– a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue.

Risk Assessment– Qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences.

Tachycardia– Increase in heart rate.

Tendinosis– Also known as chronic tendinitis, chronic tendinopathy, or chronic tendon injury, is damage to a tendon at a cellular level.